Ybadoo - Soluções em Software Livre
Tutoriais
Linguagens Formais e Autômatos

Desenvolva um autômato finito determinístico sobre o alfabeto Σ = {x, y, z} que reconheça a linguagem L = {w | w possui zyx como prefixo, xzy como subpalavra e zyzy como sufixo}.

 

M = ({x, y, z}, {q0, q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6, q7, q8, q9, q10}, δ, q0, {q10})

Grafo com a função de transição de M
Grafo com a função de transição de M
Tabela com a função de transição de M
δxyz
q0--q1
q1-q2-
q2q4--
q3q4q3q3
q4q4q3q5
q5q4q8q3
q6q6q6q7
q7q6q8q7
q8q6q6q9
q9q6q10q7
q10q6q6q9

Terminal

ybadoo@server:~$ ./application
Implementação na linguagem de programação Java Implementação na linguagem de programação C++ Implementação na linguagem de programação C Implementação na linguagem de programação Pascal
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação Java State.java DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.java Application.java
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação Java
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação Java

Arquivo State.java

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * OpenJDK Version "1.8.0_121"                                           *
 * OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.121-b13, mixed mode)               *
 *************************************************************************/

package com.ybadoo.tutoriais.lfa.tutorial02.exercicio53;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Estado do Automato Finito Deterministico
 */
public class State
{
  /**
   * Estado eh de aceitacao
   */
  private boolean accept;

  /**
   * Transicao de estados
   */
  private Map<Character, Integer> transitions;

  /**
   * Constructor
   *
   * @param accept estado eh de aceitacao
   */
  public State(boolean accept)
  {
    this.accept = accept;

    transitions = new HashMap<>();
  }

  /**
   * Retornar se o estado eh de aceitacao
   *
   * @return true se o estado eh de aceitacao,
   *   false em caso contrario
   */
  public boolean isAccept()
  {
    return accept;
  }

  /**
   * Adicionar uma transicao de estado
   *
   * @param symbol simbolo corrente
   * @param state novo estado
   */
  public void addTransition(Character symbol, Integer state)
  {
    transitions.put(symbol, state);
  }

  /**
   * Retornar o novo estado
   *
   * @param symbol simbolo corrente
   * @return novo estado
   */
  public Integer getTransition(Character symbol)
  {
    return transitions.get(symbol);
  }
}

Arquivo DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.java

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * OpenJDK Version "1.8.0_121"                                           *
 * OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.121-b13, mixed mode)               *
 *************************************************************************/

package com.ybadoo.tutoriais.lfa.tutorial02.exercicio53;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Automato Finito Deterministico (AFD)
 */
public class DeterministicFiniteAutomaton
{
  /**
   * Estados do Automato Finito Deterministico (AFD)
   */
  private Map<Integer, State> states;

  /**
   * Constructor
   */
  public DeterministicFiniteAutomaton()
  {
    states = new HashMap<>();

    State q0 = new State(false);
    q0.addTransition('z', 1);
    states.put(0, q0);

    State q1 = new State(false);
    q1.addTransition('y', 2);
    states.put(1, q1);

    State q2 = new State(false);
    q2.addTransition('x', 4);
    states.put(2, q2);

    State q3 = new State(false);
    q3.addTransition('x', 4);
    q3.addTransition('y', 3);
    q3.addTransition('z', 3);
    states.put(3, q3);

    State q4 = new State(false);
    q4.addTransition('x', 4);
    q4.addTransition('y', 3);
    q4.addTransition('z', 5);
    states.put(4, q4);

    State q5 = new State(false);
    q5.addTransition('x', 4);
    q5.addTransition('y', 8);
    q5.addTransition('z', 3);
    states.put(5, q5);

    State q6 = new State(false);
    q6.addTransition('x', 6);
    q6.addTransition('y', 6);
    q6.addTransition('z', 7);
    states.put(6, q6);

    State q7 = new State(false);
    q7.addTransition('x', 6);
    q7.addTransition('y', 8);
    q7.addTransition('z', 7);
    states.put(7, q7);

    State q8 = new State(false);
    q8.addTransition('x', 6);
    q8.addTransition('y', 6);
    q8.addTransition('z', 9);
    states.put(8, q8);

    State q9 = new State(false);
    q9.addTransition('x', 6);
    q9.addTransition('y', 10);
    q9.addTransition('z', 7);
    states.put(9, q9);

    State q10 = new State(true);
    q10.addTransition('x', 6);
    q10.addTransition('y', 6);
    q10.addTransition('z', 9);
    q10.addTransition('$', 10);
    states.put(10, q10);
  }

  /**
   * Formatar o estado para impressao
   *
   * @param state estado
   * @return estado formatado para impressao
   */
  private String formatState(Integer state)
  {
    if((states.size() < 100) && (state < 10))
    {
      return "\nq" + state + "  - ";
    }

    return "\nq" + state + " - ";
  }

  /**
   * Reconhecer a sentenca de entrada
   *
   * @param sentence sentenca de entrada
   * @return true caso a sentenca de entrada pertenca a linguagem,
   *   false em caso contrario
   */
  public boolean recognize(String sentence)
  {
    String input = sentence + "$";

    System.out.print("Observação: \"$\" representa o fim da sentença");

    Integer state = 0;

    int length = input.length();

    for(int symbol = 0; symbol < length; symbol++)
    {
      System.out.print(formatState(state));

      for(int index = 0; index < length; index++)
      {
        if(index != symbol)
        {
          System.out.print(" " + input.charAt(index) + " ");
        }
        else
        {
          System.out.print("[" + input.charAt(index) + "]");
        }
      }

      state = states.get(state).getTransition(input.charAt(symbol));

      if(state == null)
      {
        System.out.println(" - REJEITA");

        return false;
      }
    }

    if(states.get(state).isAccept())
    {
      System.out.println(" - ACEITA");
    }
    else
    {
      System.out.println(" - REJEITA");
    }

    return states.get(state).isAccept();
  }
}

Arquivo Application.java

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * OpenJDK Version "1.8.0_121"                                           *
 * OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.121-b13, mixed mode)               *
 *************************************************************************/

package com.ybadoo.tutoriais.lfa.tutorial02.exercicio53;

import java.util.Scanner;

/**
 * Testar o Automato Finito Deterministico (AFD)
 */
public class Application
{
  /**
   * Constructor
   */
  private Application()
  {

  }

  /**
   * Metodo principal da linguagem de programacao Java
   *
   * @param args argumentos da linha de comando (nao utilizado)
   */
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
    Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);

    System.out.print("Analise a sentença: ");
    String sentence = scanner.nextLine().trim();

    scanner.close();

    if(sentence.indexOf("$") >= 0)
    {
      System.out.println("A sentença \"" + sentence + "\" é inválida");

      return;
    }

    DeterministicFiniteAutomaton afd = new DeterministicFiniteAutomaton();

    afd.recognize(sentence);
  }
}
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação C++ State.hpp State.cpp DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.hpp DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.cpp Application.cpp Makefile para a linguagem de programação C++
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação C++
Diagrama de classes na linguagem de programação C++

Arquivo State.hpp

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#ifndef STATE_HPP_
#define STATE_HPP_

#include <map>

/**
 * Estado do Automato Finito Deterministico
 */
class State
{
  public:

  /**
   * Constructor
   *
   * @param accept estado eh de aceitacao
   */
  State(const bool accept);

  /**
   * Destructor
   */
  virtual ~State();

  /**
   * Retornar se o estado eh de aceitacao
   *
   * @return true (1) se o estado eh de aceitacao,
   *   false (0) em caso contrario
   */
  bool isAccept() const;

  /**
   * Adicionar uma transicao de estado
   *
   * @param symbol simbolo corrente
   * @param state novo estado
   */
  void addTransition(char symbol, int state);

  /**
   * Retornar o novo estado
   *
   * @param symbol simbolo corrente
   * @return novo estado
   */
  int getTransition(char symbol) const;

  private:

  /**
   * Estado eh de aceitacao
   */
  bool accept;

  /**
   * Transicao de estados
   */
  std::map<char, int>* transitions;
};

#endif

Arquivo State.cpp

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#include <map>

#include "State.hpp"

/**
 * Constructor
 *
 * @param accept estado eh de aceitacao
 */
State::State(const bool accept)
{
  State::accept = accept;

  transitions = new std::map<char, int>();
}

/**
 * Destructor
 */
State::~State()
{
  transitions->clear();

  delete transitions;
}

/**
 * Retornar se o estado eh de aceitacao
 *
 * @return true (1) se o estado eh de aceitacao,
 *   false (0) em caso contrario
 */
bool State::isAccept() const
{
  return accept;
}

/**
 * Adicionar uma transicao de estado
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @param state novo estado
 */
void State::addTransition(char symbol, int state)
{
  transitions->insert(std::pair<char, int>(symbol, state));
}

/**
 * Retornar o novo estado
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return novo estado
 */
int State::getTransition(char symbol) const
{
  if(transitions->find(symbol) != transitions->end())
  {
    return transitions->find(symbol)->second;
  }

  return -1;
}

Arquivo DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.hpp

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#ifndef DETERMINISTIC_FINITE_AUTOMATON_HPP_
#define DETERMINISTIC_FINITE_AUTOMATON_HPP_

#include <map>
#include <string>

#include "State.hpp"

/**
 * Automato Finito Deterministico (AFD)
 */
class DeterministicFiniteAutomaton
{
  public:

  /**
   * Constructor
   */
  DeterministicFiniteAutomaton();

  /**
   * Destructor
   */
  virtual ~DeterministicFiniteAutomaton();

  /**
   * Reconhecer a sentenca de entrada
   *
   * @param sentence sentenca de entrada
   * @return true (1) caso a sentenca de entrada pertenca a linguagem,
   *   false (0) em caso contrario
   */
  bool recognize(std::string sentence);

  private:

  /**
   * Estados do Automato Finito Deterministico (AFD)
   */
  std::map<int, State*>* states;

  /**
   * Formatar o estado para impressao
   *
   * @param state estado
   * @return estado formatado para impressao
   */
  std::string formatState(int state);
};

#endif

Arquivo DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.cpp

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#include <iostream>
#include <map>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>

#include "DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.hpp"

/**
 * Constructor
 */
DeterministicFiniteAutomaton::DeterministicFiniteAutomaton()
{
  states = new std::map<int, State*>();

  State* q0 = new State(false);
  q0->addTransition('z', 1);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(0, q0));

  State* q1 = new State(false);
  q1->addTransition('y', 2);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(1, q1));

  State* q2 = new State(false);
  q2->addTransition('x', 4);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(2, q2));

  State* q3 = new State(false);
  q3->addTransition('x', 4);
  q3->addTransition('y', 3);
  q3->addTransition('z', 3);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(3, q3));

  State* q4 = new State(false);
  q4->addTransition('x', 4);
  q4->addTransition('y', 3);
  q4->addTransition('z', 5);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(4, q4));

  State* q5 = new State(false);
  q5->addTransition('x', 4);
  q5->addTransition('y', 8);
  q5->addTransition('z', 3);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(5, q5));

  State* q6 = new State(false);
  q6->addTransition('x', 6);
  q6->addTransition('y', 6);
  q6->addTransition('z', 7);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(6, q6));

  State* q7 = new State(false);
  q7->addTransition('x', 6);
  q7->addTransition('y', 8);
  q7->addTransition('z', 7);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(7, q7));

  State* q8 = new State(false);
  q8->addTransition('x', 6);
  q8->addTransition('y', 6);
  q8->addTransition('z', 9);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(8, q8));

  State* q9 = new State(false);
  q9->addTransition('x', 6);
  q9->addTransition('y', 10);
  q9->addTransition('z', 7);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(9, q9));

  State* q10 = new State(true);
  q10->addTransition('x', 6);
  q10->addTransition('y', 6);
  q10->addTransition('z', 9);
  q10->addTransition('$', 10);
  states->insert(std::pair<int, State*>(10, q10));
}

/**
 * Destructor
 */
DeterministicFiniteAutomaton::~DeterministicFiniteAutomaton()
{
  while(!states->empty())
  {
    delete states->begin()->second;

    states->erase(states->begin());
  }

  delete states;
}

/**
 * Reconhecer a sentenca de entrada
 *
 * @param sentence sentenca de entrada
 * @return true (1) caso a sentenca de entrada seja reconhecida,
 *   false (0) em caso contrario
 */
bool DeterministicFiniteAutomaton::recognize(std::string sentence)
{
  using namespace std;

  sentence.insert(sentence.end(), '$');

  cout << "Observação: \"$\" representa o fim da sentença";

  int symbol;

  int index;

  int state = 0;

  State* actual;

  int length = sentence.length();

  for(symbol = 0; symbol < length; symbol++)
  {
    cout << formatState(state);

    for(index = 0; index < length; index++)
    {
      if(index != symbol)
      {
        cout << " " << sentence.at(index) << " ";
      }
      else
      {
        cout << "[" << sentence.at(index) << "]";
      }
    }

    actual = states->find(state)->second;

    state = actual->getTransition(sentence.at(symbol));

    if(state == -1)
    {
      cout << " - REJEITA" << endl;

      return false;
    }
  }

  actual = states->find(state)->second;

  if(actual->isAccept())
  {
    cout << " - ACEITA" << endl;
  }
  else
  {
    cout << " - REJEITA" << endl;
  }

  return actual->isAccept();
}

/**
 * Formatar o estado para impressao
 *
 * @param state estado
 * @return estado formatado para impressao
 */
std::string DeterministicFiniteAutomaton::formatState(int state)
{
  using namespace std;

  stringstream buffer;

  buffer << "\nq" << state;

  if((states->size() < 100) && (state < 10))
  {
    buffer << "  - ";
  }
  else
  {
    buffer << " - ";
  }

  return buffer.str();
}

Arquivo Application.cpp

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

#include "DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.hpp"

/**
 * Metodo principal da linguagem de programacao C++
 *
 * @param argc quantidade de argumentos na linha de comando (nao utilizado)
 * @param argv argumentos da linha de comando (nao utilizado)
 */
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  using namespace std;

  string sentence;

  cout << "Analise a sentença: ";
  cin >> sentence;

  if(sentence.find("$") != string::npos)
  {
    cout << "A sentença \"" << sentence << "\" é inválida" << endl;

    return 1;
  }

  DeterministicFiniteAutomaton* afd = new DeterministicFiniteAutomaton();

  afd->recognize(sentence);

  delete afd;

  return 0;
}

Arquivo makefile

##########################################################################
 # Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  #
 #                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  #
 #                                                                       #
 # Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document #
 # under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or #
 # any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no #
 # Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A #
 # A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free #
 # Documentation License".                                               #
 #                                                                       #
 # Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             #
 # gcc/g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                       #
 ##########################################################################

g++ -o State.o -c State.cpp

g++ -o DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.o -c DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.cpp

g++ -o Application.o -c Application.cpp

g++ -o application State.o DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.o Application.o
DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.c Makefile para a linguagem de programação C

Arquivo DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.c

/*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * gcc (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                           *
 *************************************************************************/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

/**
 * Definicao das constantes
 */
#define ACEITA  1
#define REJEITA 0

/**
 * Prototipo das funcoes
 */
void console(int, int);
int q0(int);
int q1(int);
int q2(int);
int q3(int);
int q4(int);
int q5(int);
int q6(int);
int q7(int);
int q8(int);
int q9(int);
int q10(int);

/**
 * Sentenca
 */
char sentence[255];

/**
 * Metodo principal da linguagem de programacao C
 *
 * @param argc quantidade de argumentos na linha de comando (nao utilizado)
 * @param argv argumentos da linha de comando (nao utilizado)
 * @return saida para o sistema operacional (padrao 0)
 */
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  printf("Analise a sentença: ");
  fgets(sentence, 255, stdin);

  if(strchr(sentence, '$') != 0)
  {
    sentence[strlen(sentence) - 1] = '\0';
    printf("A sentença \"%s\" é inválida\n", sentence);
    return 1;
  }

  sentence[strlen(sentence) - 1] = '$';

  printf("Observação: \"$\" representa o fim da sentença");

  if(q0(0))
  {
    printf(" - ACEITA\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf(" - REJEITA\n");
  }

  return 0;
}

/**
 * Imprimir a execucao do automato finito deterministico
 *
 * @param state estado corrente
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 */
void console(int state, int symbol)
{
  int i;

  int length = strlen(sentence);

  if(state < 10)
  {
    printf("\nq%i  - ", state);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("\nq%i - ", state);
  }

  for(i = 0; i < length; i++)
  {
    if(i != symbol)
    {
      printf(" %c ", sentence[i]);
    }
    else
    {
      printf("[%c]", sentence[i]);
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q0 (inicial)
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q0(int symbol)
{
  console(0, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'z': return q1(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q1
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q1(int symbol)
{
  console(1, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'y': return q2(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q2
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q2(int symbol)
{
  console(2, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q4(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q3
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q3(int symbol)
{
  console(3, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q4(symbol);
    case 'y': return q3(symbol);
    case 'z': return q3(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q4
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q4(int symbol)
{
  console(4, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q4(symbol);
    case 'y': return q3(symbol);
    case 'z': return q5(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q5
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q5(int symbol)
{
  console(5, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q4(symbol);
    case 'y': return q8(symbol);
    case 'z': return q3(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q6
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q6(int symbol)
{
  console(6, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q6(symbol);
    case 'y': return q6(symbol);
    case 'z': return q7(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q7
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q7(int symbol)
{
  console(7, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q6(symbol);
    case 'y': return q8(symbol);
    case 'z': return q7(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q8
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q8(int symbol)
{
  console(8, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q6(symbol);
    case 'y': return q6(symbol);
    case 'z': return q9(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q9
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q9(int symbol)
{
  console(9, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q6(symbol);
    case 'y': return q10(symbol);
    case 'z': return q7(symbol);
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

/**
 * Estado q10 (final)
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 */
int q10(int symbol)
{
  console(10, symbol);

  switch(sentence[symbol++])
  {
    case 'x': return q6(symbol);
    case 'y': return q6(symbol);
    case 'z': return q9(symbol);
    case '$': return ACEITA;
    default : return REJEITA;
  }
}

Arquivo makefile

##########################################################################
 # Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  #
 #                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  #
 #                                                                       #
 # Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document #
 # under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or #
 # any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no #
 # Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A #
 # A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free #
 # Documentation License".                                               #
 #                                                                       #
 # Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             #
 # gcc/g++ (Ubuntu 6.2.0-5ubuntu12) 6.2.0 20161005                       #
 ##########################################################################

gcc -o DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.o -c DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.c

gcc -o application DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.o

Arquivo DeterministicFiniteAutomaton.pas

(*************************************************************************
 * Copyright (C) 2009/2018 - Cristiano Lehrer (cristiano@ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                  Ybadoo - Solucoes em Software Livre (ybadoo.com.br)  *
 *                                                                       *
 * Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document *
 * under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or *
 * any later version published by the  Free Software Foundation; with no *
 * Invariant Sections,  no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A *
 * A copy of the  license is included in  the section entitled "GNU Free *
 * Documentation License".                                               *
 *                                                                       *
 * Ubuntu 16.10 (GNU/Linux 4.8.0-39-generic)                             *
 * FreePascal IDE for Linux for x86-64 (version 2.6.2-8)                 *
 *************************************************************************)

program DeterministicFiniteAutomaton;

(**
 * Definicao das constantes
 *)
const
  ACEITA  = true;
  REJEITA = false;

(**
 * Prototipo das funcoes
 *)
procedure console(state : integer; symbol : integer); forward;
function q0(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q1(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q2(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q3(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q4(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q5(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q6(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q7(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q8(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q9(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;
function q10(symbol : integer) : boolean; forward;

var
  (**
   * Sentenca
   *)
  sentence : string;

(**
 * Imprimir a execucao do automato finito deterministico
 *
 * @param state estado corrente
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 *)
procedure console(state : integer; symbol : integer);
var i : integer;
begin
  writeln();

  if state < 10 then
  begin
    write('q', state, '  - ');
  end
  else
  begin
    write('q', state, ' - ');
  end;

  for i := 1 to ord(sentence[0]) do
  begin
    if i <> symbol then
    begin
      write(' ', sentence[i], ' ');
    end
    else
    begin
      write('[', sentence[i], ']');
    end;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q0 (inicial)
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q0(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(0, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'z' : q0 := q1(symbol + 1);
    else  q0 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q1
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q1(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(1, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'y' : q1 := q2(symbol + 1);
    else  q1 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q2
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q2(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(2, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q2 := q4(symbol + 1);
    else  q2 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q3
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q3(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(3, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q3 := q4(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q3 := q3(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q3 := q3(symbol + 1);
    else  q3 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q4
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q4(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(4, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q4 := q4(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q4 := q3(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q4 := q5(symbol + 1);
    else  q4 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q5
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q5(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(5, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q5 := q4(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q5 := q8(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q5 := q3(symbol + 1);
    else  q5 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q6
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q6(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(6, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q6 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q6 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q6 := q7(symbol + 1);
    else  q6 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q7
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q7(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(7, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q7 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q7 := q8(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q7 := q7(symbol + 1);
    else  q7 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q8
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q8(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(8, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q8 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q8 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q8 := q9(symbol + 1);
    else  q8 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q9
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q9(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(9, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q9 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q9 := q10(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q9 := q7(symbol + 1);
    else  q9 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Estado q10 (final)
 *
 * @param symbol simbolo corrente
 * @return ACEITA ou REJEITA
 *)
function q10(symbol : integer) : boolean;
begin
  console(10, symbol);

  case sentence[symbol] of
    'x' : q10 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'y' : q10 := q6(symbol + 1);
    'z' : q10 := q9(symbol + 1);
    '$' : q10 := ACEITA;
    else  q10 := REJEITA;
  end;
end;

(**
 * Metodo principal da linguagem de programacao Pascal
 *)
begin
  write('Analise a sentença: ');
  readln(sentence);

  if pos('$', sentence) <> 0 then
  begin
    writeln('A sentença "', sentence, '" é inválida');
    halt;
  end;

  sentence := sentence + '$';

  write('Observação: "$" representa o fim da sentença');

  if q0(1) then
  begin
    writeln(' - ACEITA');
  end
  else
  begin
    writeln(' - REJEITA');
  end;
end.